APPLICATION NOTES

At P S Analytical, we pride ourselves on solving customer's analysis problems; not only can we provide analysers suited to particular requirements, but we can also assist in finding the best chemistry method for the particular application and after installation and initial training provide on-going support for both technical and chemistry requirements.

Examples of some of the projects undertaken by PSA can be found on our Consultancy page.

This page details some of the applications which PSA has undertaken. As part of our continuous development programme new applications are constantly being undertaken and this pages is added to on a continuing basis.

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NOTE: The elements of interest are colour coded for ease of identification

Hg As Se Sb Bi Te

Hg

APP001

The determination of mercury in milk powder

Hg

APP002

The determination of mercury in oyster juice

Hg

APP003

The determination of mercury in human hair

Hg

APP004

Total mercury determinations in industrial and domestic wastewaters

Hg

APP005

Sampling method for concentrating mercury in natural gas

Hg

APP006

Rapid method for determining mercury in urine

Hg

APP007

The determination of mercury in urine using microwave dissolution

Hg

APP008

Total mercury determinations in drinking, surface, ground and saline waters

Hg

APP009

Comparison data for sir Galahad and potassium permanganate absorption

Hg

APP010

Determination of mercury in stabilised condensate

Se

APP011

Determination of Selenium in blood by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS)

As

APP012

Arsenic determinations in soil, sediment and sludge samples

Hg

APP013

Mercury determinations in soil, sediment and sludge samples

Sb

APP014

Antimony determinations in soil, sediment and sludge samples

Se

APP015

Selenium determinations in soil, sediment and sludge samples

Se

APP016

Selenium determination in fresh, estaurine and nearshore water samples

As

APP017

Arsenic determination in fresh, estaurine and nearshore water samples

Hg

APP018

Determination of methylmercury in mussel homogenate

Hg

APP019

Determination of total mercury in mussel homogenate

As

APP020

Determination of arsenic in naphtha by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Se

APP021

Determination of selenium in whole blood and serum

Hg

APP022

The determination of mercury in whole blood

Hg

APP023

Determination of mercury in industrial effluent

As

APP024

Arsenic speciation by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP025

Determination of mercury in contaminated soil

As

APP026

Determination of arsenic in contaminated soil

Se

APP027

Determination of selenium in contaminated soil

Hg

APP028

Determination of mercury in liquid hydrocarbon/condensates

Hg

APP029

Determination of mercury in aluminum samples

Sb

APP030

Determination of antimony in potable waters

Hg

APP031

The use of PSA millennium merlin for the determination of mercury in a polluted marine sediment

Hg

APP032

Determination of mercury in standard reference material NBS3133

Hg

APP033

Determination of mercury in zinc concentrates

Hg

APP034

Determination of methylmercury in marine liver tissue by gas chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP035

Determination of methylmercury in fucus sea plant by gas chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP036

Determination of mercury in tea samples using continuous flow vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP037

Mercury speciation in liquid hydrocarbons using gas chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Sb

Se

As

APP038

The determination of antimony, arsenic and selenium in lead concentrates using continuous flow vapour generation - atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP039

Determination of mercury in poplar leaves using continuous flow vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Se

APP040

Determination of selenium in human hair using atomic fluorescence spectrometry

As

APP041

Determination of arsenic in human hair using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP042

Determination of mercury in paper using continuous flow vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

As

Se

Sb

APP043 

Determination of arsenic, antimony and selenium in zinc concentrates by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP044

Determination of arsenic in poplar leaves using continuous flow hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Sb

APP045

Determination of antimony in human bone

Hg

APP046

Determination of mercury in incineration ash

Hg

APP047

Determination of mercury in sewage flue gas

Se

APP048

Determination of selenium in grass using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP049

Determination of arsenic in oyster tissue using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Se

APP050

Determination of selenium in oyster tissue using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Se

APP051

Determination of selenium in children's nutritional supplements using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Se

APP052

Determination of selenium in milk using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP053

Mercury speciation using the Millennium Merlin speciation system

Se

APP054

Interference of copper on the determination of selenium using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Sb

APP055

Antimony speciation using the Millennium Excalibur speciation system

Hg

APP056

Determination of mercury in sodium hypochlorite solution using vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP057

UV oxidation for the online treatment of mercury prior to determination by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP058

Determination of mercury in coal using vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Se

APP059

Online reduction of SeIV prior to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry determination of selenium (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP060

Determination of mercury in natural gas

Hg

APP061

Online mercury determination in wastewater from an incineration plant

As

APP062

Determination of arsenic in aluminum samples

Sb

APP063

Determination of antimony in aluminum samples

Bi

APP064

Determination of bismuth in hair using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Sb

APP065

Determination of antimony in human hair using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP066

Fully automated determination of mercury in air using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP067

Determination of mercury in hydrogen using amalgamation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP068

Determination of mercury using continuous flow vapour generation atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)

Hg

APP069

Determination of mercury in fly ash

Se

APP070

Determination of selenium in wheat flour using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG_AFS)

Se

APP071

Determination of selenium in bovine liver using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP072

Determination of total mercury in crude oil and condensate feedstock by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP073

The use of cold vapour atomic fluorescence (CV-AFS) for the Ontario hydro method (ASTM D6784-02)

As

APP074

Determination of arsenic in coal using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Se

APP075

Determination of selenium in coal using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Se

APP076

Determination of selenium in cod muscle using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP077

Determination of mercury in sulfur using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

As

APP078

Determination of arsenic in naphtha samples

Hg

APP079

Determination of mercury in naphtha using the Millennium Merlin

Hg

Se

APP080

Determination of antimony and mercury in false nail adhesive

Hg

APP081

Determination of mercury in produced water

Hg

APP082

Determination of mercury in gases containing high levels of H2S using dual amalgamation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP083

Determination of total mercury in condensate sample using the millennium merlin and pre-concentration unit

Hg

APP084

Determination of trace amount of mercury in brine and water samples using cold vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP085

Complying the quality assurance program of EPA method 1631 and its application to the determination of ultra-trace mercury in rainwater samples

Hg

APP086

Complying the quality assurance program of EPA method 1631 and its application to the determination of ultra-trace mercury in water samples

Hg

APP087

Determination of total mercury in mixed LPG using ISO-6978 and ASTM 6350

Hg

APP088

Methylmercury determination in human hair using high performance liquid chromatography and post column UV digestion coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS)

Sb

APP089

Antimony speciation in soils using the Millennium Excalibur

Hg

APP090

Determination of mercury in poplar leaves using continuous flow vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry using hot plate digestion (CV-AFS)

As

APP091

Speciation of four toxicologically relevant arsenic species in water samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS)

Se

APP092

Using the Millennium Excalibur for selenium speciation

Se

APP093

Determination of selenium in dogfish muscle and lobster heatpacreas using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP094

Mercury speciation in solid samples by thermal decomposition atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS)

Hg

APP095

Determination of total mercury in waste lubricant oil by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP096

Determination of mercury in water samples using automated UV digestion with vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (UV-AFS)

Se

APP097

Determination of total selenium in drinking water samples with online pre-reductions hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP098

Bromination method for mercury in urine

As

APP099

Speciation of inorganic arsenic in food by hydride generation anion exchange liquid chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry with online ultraviolet digestion (HG-LC-UV-AFS)

Hg

APP100

Total mercury in vegetables

Hg

APP101

Total mercury in fish

Hg

APP102

Continuous determination of mercury in waste and process water using the PSA 10.225 Online Mercury Liquid systems

Se

APP103

Determination of selenium in glass using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP104

Total arsenic analysis on swabs

As

APP105

Rapid arsenic speciation analysis in water samples using flow injection hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) with low pressure short column

Hg

APP106

Determination of total mercury in glycol by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP107

Determination of mercury fractions in caustic wash samples

Hg

APP108

Determination of mercury in caustic soda by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP109

Determination of mercury in mining waste containing high levels of cyanide

As

APP110

Determination of arsenic in hair using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry after open vessel digestion on a hot block

Hg

APP111

Determination of total mercury in urine after nitric acid digestion

As

APP112

Determination of arsenic in etidronic acid (HEDP) by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP113

Arsenic speciation in rice by hydride generation anion exchange liquid chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-LC-HG-AFS)

Hg

APP114

Determination of total mercury in phenol using the PSA 10.515 Pre-Concentration unit

Hg

APP115

Determination of mercury in ethane using amalgamation (AFS)

As

APP116

Determination of arsenic in whole blood

Hg

APP117

Determination of mercury in pressurized liquid hydrocarbon samples collected in sample bombs

Se

APP118

Selenium speciation in yeast by hydride generation anion exchange liquid chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry with online ultraviolet digestion (HPLC-UV-HG-AFS)

Hg

APP119

Determination of total mercury in seaweed by cold vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

As

APP120

Total arsenic analysis in animal feed by online UV oxidation hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)

Hg

APP121

Determination of total mercury in animal feed by cold vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP122

Determination of total mercury in natural water using amalgamation (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP123

Determination of total mercury in hair by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

As

APP124

Determination of arsenic in polypropylene

Hg

APP125

Determination of total mercury in iodated activated carbon by vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

Hg

APP126

Determination of mercury in FGD wastewater using cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS)

As

APP127

Determination of inorganic arsenic in rice by selective hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP128

Determination of total arsenic in FGD wastewater by online UV oxidation hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)

Se

APP129

Determination of total selenium in FGD wastewater by online UV oxidation hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)

Hg

APP130

Determination of mercury in spent adsorbents for the petrochemical industry

Hg

APP131

Determination of mercury in sulphuric acid using CV-AFS

As

APP132

Determination of total arsenic in phosphoric acid by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) with and without online UV digestion

Se

APP133

Determination of selenium in sulphuric acid using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

Hg

APP134

Determination of mercury in polypropylene

Hg

APP135

Determination of airborne mercury for occupational exposure within the oil and gas industry using hydrar sampling tubes with CV-AFS

Hg

APP136

Online determination of mercury in FGD wastewater

As

APP137

Determination of total arsenic in wastewater from an oil and gas refinery by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP138

Online determination of arsenic in drinking water

As

APP139

Online determination of arsenic in FGD wastewater

As

APP140

Online determination of arsenic in FGD wastewater from and oil and gas refinery

As

Se

APP141

Using the Millennium Excalibur system for the speciation of arsenic and selenium metabolites in human urine

Se

APP142

Online determination of selenium in FGD wastewater

Hg

APP143

Mercury speciation in spent sorbent (total and elemental mercury) using atomic fluorescence spectrometry

As

APP144

Arsenic speciation in water samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS)

As

APP145

Determination of total arsenic in nickel refinery smelting processing samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)

As

APP146

Arsenic speciation in water samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) using the 10.820-1000 binary gradient pump

Se

APP147

Selenium speciation in wastewater by HPLC-HG-AFS

Se

Hg

As

APP148

Determination of arsenic, mercury and selenium on sorbent traps suitable for gas phase measurements

Se

APP149

Determination of selenium in human finger nails

As

APP150

Determination of arsenic in human finger nails by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry after open vessel digestion on hot block

Sb

APP151

Determination and speciation of antimony in wastewater

Hg

APP152

Phenylation of methyl-and ethylmercury in water samples, liquid-liquid-extraction and analysis via GC-AFS

Hg

APP153

Propylation of methyl-and ethyl-mercury in seawater using derivatisation with liquid-liquid extraction and analysis via GC-AFS

Te

APP154

Analysis of total tellurium in environmental samples

Hg

APP155

Determination of elemental mercury in soil samples

Hg

APP156

Automated determination of total mercury in liquid hydrocarbon samples using the 20.600 auto injector

Hg

APP157

Determination of Mercury in water samples with automated sample digestion and vapour generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

As

APP158

Determination of Total Arsenic in Urine by Online UV Oxidation Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (UV-HG-AFS)

Hg

APP159

Determination of the Total Mercury using EN13211 with Dichromate Impingers

As

APP160

Arsenic Speciation in Urine Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) using the 10.820-1000

As

APP161

Arsenic speciation in Natural Water samples using the PSA 10.820 MI Coupled to hydride generation AFS

Hg

APP162

Simple extraction and speciation method for methylmercury in seafood based on HPLC-UV-CVAFS

Hg

APP163

Speciation method for Methylmercury in Hair based on HPLC-CVAFS

Hg

APP164

Arsenic Speciation in FGD wastewater using LC-HG-AFS

As

APP165

Inorganic Selenium Speciation in Mineral Water Samples using Selectivie Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)

If you would like a copy of any of our Application Notes, please click on our Information Request page and we will be happy to send you any information you require.