3rd INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ANTIMONY IN THE ENVIRONMENT
Authors: Dr Bin Chen, Dr Warren T Corns & Dr Peter B Stockwell (PSA)
Antimony levels in drinking water are generally quite low and not considered a major health concern. However it is used in various industrial processes and is discharged in wastewater. Antimony compounds are used as catalysts in the production of polyesters and flame retardants and these ultimately causes releases of antimony to the environment during production and disposal. In June 2013, the EPA proposed a new rule “40 CFR Part 423” which relates to effluent limitation guidelines to limit the amount of toxic metals being discharged to surface waters. Antimony is one of the main elements of concern because of its high toxicity and potential impact to the environment and wildlife. Online analysis of Sb in wastewater streams enables the possibilities of precise monitoring of the complete water treatment process and ensures the compliance with discharge regulations. However the analytical challenges remain due to the complexity of the wastewater matrix. Hydride generation is also oxidation state dependent and therefore online chemistries have to be developed to ensure accurate measurements are achieved. In this presentation, various industrial wastewater streams are successfully analysed by online analysis based on hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). . Detection limits of 200 ppt with linearity to 100 ppm are achievable with the online instrumentation. The results were compared and cross examined by HPLC-HG-AFS and HG-AFS methodologies after the appropriate sample treatments.
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